Tuniit or Tunit refers to the next inhabitants of central and eastern Arctic. The Dorset culture evolved because of technological and economic changes during the period of — BC. Scientists theorize that there may have been cross-contact of the two cultures with sharing of technology, such as fashioning harpoon heads, or the Thule may have found Dorset remnants and adapted their ways with the predecessor culture.
Arctic shelves[ edit ] The ocean's Arctic shelf comprises a number of continental shelvesincluding the Canadian Arctic shelf, underlying the Canadian Arctic Archipelagoand the Russian continental shelfwhich is sometimes simply called the "Arctic Shelf" because it is greater in extent.
Of these three, the Siberian Shelf is the largest such shelf in the world.
The whole area is subject to international territorial claims. Underwater features[ edit ] An underwater ridgethe Lomonosov Ridgedivides the deep sea North Polar Basin into two oceanic basins: The bathymetry of the ocean bottom is marked by fault block ridges, abyssal plainsocean deepsand basins.
Water flow[ edit ] Distribution of the major water mass in the Arctic Ocean. The section sketches the different water masses along a vertical section from Bering Strait over the geographic North Pole to Fram Strait.
As the stratification is stable, deeper water masses are more dense than the layers above. Profiles of temperature and salinity for the Amundsen Basin, the Canadian Basin and the Greenland Sea are sketched in this cartoon. It remains relatively stable, because the salinity effect on density is bigger than the temperature effect.
It is fed by the freshwater input of the big Siberian and Canadian streams ObYeniseiLenaMackenziethe water of which quasi floats on the saltier, denser, deeper ocean water. Between this lower salinity layer and the bulk of the ocean lies the so-called haloclinein which both salinity and temperature are rising with increasing depth.
A copepod Because of its relative isolation from other oceans, the Arctic Ocean has a uniquely complex system of water flow. Mean surface circulation is predominately cyclonic on the Eurasian side and anticyclonic in the Canadian Basin.
The deepest water mass is called Arctic Bottom Water and begins around metres 3, feet depth. Arctic shelf water and Greenland Sea Deep Water. Water in the shelf region that begins as inflow from the Pacific passes through the narrow Bering Strait at an average rate of 0.
This water is met by Greenland Sea Deep Water, which forms during the passage of winter storms. As temperatures cool dramatically in the winter, ice forms and intense vertical convection allows the water to become dense enough to sink below the warm saline water below.
The overturning of this water plays a key role in global circulation and the moderation of climate. In the depth range of — metres —2, feet is a water mass referred to as Atlantic Water. Inflow from the North Atlantic Current enters through the Fram Straitcooling and sinking to form the deepest layer of the halocline, where it circles the Arctic Basin counter-clockwise.
This is the highest volumetric inflow to the Arctic Ocean, equalling about 10 times that of the Pacific inflow, and it creates the Arctic Ocean Boundary Current.
In fact, this water mass is actually warmer than the surface water, and remains submerged only due to the role of salinity in density. Water in the Beaufort Gyre is far less saline than that of the Chukchi Sea due to inflow from large Canadian and Siberian rivers.
The most important feature of this water mass is a section referred to as the sub-surface layer. It is a product of Atlantic water that enters through canyons and is subjected to intense mixing on the Siberian Shelf.
This insulation keeps the warm Atlantic Water from melting the surface ice. Additionally, this water forms the swiftest currents of the Arctic, with speed of around 0.
Waters originating in the Pacific and Atlantic both exit through the Fram Strait between Greenland and Svalbard Islandwhich is about 2, metres 8, feet deep and kilometres miles wide.
This outflow is about 9 Sv. Because of this, it is influenced by the Coriolis forcewhich concentrates outflow to the East Greenland Current on the western side and inflow to the Norwegian Current on the eastern side. With this dependence, the Arctic Ocean experiences variations due to seasonal changes in sea ice cover.
Sea ice movement is the result of wind forcing, which is related to a number of meteorological conditions that the Arctic experiences throughout the year. For example, the Beaufort High—an extension of the Siberian High system—is a pressure system that drives the anticyclonic motion of the Beaufort Gyre.
In addition, there is a sea level pressure SLP ridge over Greenland that drives strong northerly winds through the Fram Strait, facilitating ice export.
In the summer, the SLP contrast is smaller, producing weaker winds. A final example of seasonal pressure system movement is the low pressure system that exists over the Nordic and Barents Seas.
It is an extension of the Icelandic Lowwhich creates cyclonic ocean circulation in this area.adjective (often initial capital letter) of, relating to, or located at or near the North Pole: the arctic srmvision.com from the North Pole or the arctic region: an arctic wind.
characteristic of the extremely cold, snowy, windy weather north of the Arctic Circle; frigid; bleak: an arctic winter.
Arctic’s strongest sea ice breaks up for first time on record. Published: 21 Aug Arctic’s strongest sea ice breaks up for first time on record. Arctic definition, of, relating to, or located at or near the North Pole: the arctic region.
See more. Official Website. New album Tranquility Base Hotel & Casino – out now. RTIC Coolers Offers Premium Rotomolded Coolers that are a fraction of the Price of The Competition and Hold More Ice – Free Shipping - Hassle-Free Returns - . Arctic: Arctic, northernmost region of the Earth, centred on the North Pole and characterized by distinctively polar conditions of climate, plant and animal life, and other physical features.
The term is derived from the Greek arktos (“bear”), referring to the northern constellation of the Bear. It has.