Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Total Cold War and the diffusion of power, —72 The concomitant arrival of the missile age and of an independent and restive Third World multiplied the senses in which politics had become global. Intercontinental rockets not only meant that the most destructive weapons known could now be propelled halfway around the world in minutes but also, because of the imminent nuclear standoff they heralded, that a Cold War competition would now extend into other realms—science and technology, economic growthsocial welfare, race relations, image making—in which the Soviets or Americans could try to prove that their system was the best. At the same time, the decolonization of dozens of underdeveloped states in Asia and Africa induced the superpowers to look beyond the original front lines of the Cold War in Europe and East Asia.
We seek your assistance in helping to create a descriptive list see below of existing IR paradigms, approaches and theories. If you know of a particular IR theory, for example, that is not listed and described below, please e-mail the name of the theory and a brief description of it to Mark Beavis at irtheory hotmail.
Even if you only know the name, send it: The list will be maintained as an on-going project and knowledge resource which will be developed and enhanced over time.
So, if you think that a particular description is inadequate, please send in a better one. IR Paradigms, Approaches and Theories: For this reason, the balancing process helps to maintain the stability of relations between states. A balance of power system functions most effectively when alliances are fluid, when they are easily formed or broken on the basis of expediency, regardless of values, religion, history, or form of government.
Occasionally a single state plays a balancer role, shifting its support to oppose whatever state or alliance is strongest. A weakness of the balance of power concept is the difficulty of measuring power. Balance of Terror Theory Suggested text for this entry welcome. Balance of Threat Theory Suggested text for this entry welcome.
Behavioralism An approach to the study of politics or other social phenomena that focuses on the actions and interactions among units by using scientific methods of observation to include quantification of variables whenever possible. A practitioner of behavioralism is often referred to as a behavioralist.
Behaviorism refers to the ideas held by those behavioral scientists who consider only observed behavior as relevant to the scientific enterprise and who reject what they consider to be metaphysical notions of "mind" or "consciousness" Viotti, P.
Macmillan Publishing Company, New York. Chaos Theory In mathematics and physics, chaos theory describes the behavior of certain nonlinear dynamical systems that may exhibit dynamics that are highly sensitive to initial conditions popularly referred to as the butterfly effect.
As a result of this sensitivity, which manifests itself as an exponential growth of perturbations in the initial conditions, the behavior of chaotic systems appears to be random.
This happens even though these systems are deterministic, meaning that their future dynamics are fully defined by their initial conditions, with no random elements involved.
This behavior is known as deterministic chaos, or simply chaos. Since the International System can be considered a nonlinear dynamic system, it is reasonable to take this theory into account for the study of the International Order. Classical Realism Also called human realism and associated with Morgenthau's exposition of realism in which the power pursuit propensity of states is derived from the basic nature of human beings as power maximisers.
This perspective holds that ideological, as well as material, factors may constitute 'power' e. Collective Security Employed during the construction of the League of Nations, the concept of collective security goes beyond the pure idea of defence to include, according to Inis Claude, 'arrangements for facilitating peaceful settlement of disputes,' assuming that the mechanisms of preventing war and defending states under armed attack will 'supplement and reinforce each other' Writing during the Cold War, Claude identifies the concept as the post-WWI name given by the international community to the 'system for maintenance of international peace Most applicable to widely inclusive international organizations such as the League and the United Nations, ideally, the arrangement would transcend the reliance on deterrence of competing alliances through a network or scheme of 'national commitments and international mechanisms.
|Marxism and war||It is hard for a teacher or student of the English Civil War in not to feel that Marxism is under siege with supplies running out.|
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From this, it is theorized that perfected collective security would discourage potential aggressors from angering a collectivity of states. Like balance-of-power, collective security works on the assumption that any potential aggressor would be deterred by the prospect of joint retaliation, but it goes beyond the military realm to include a wider array of security problems.
It assumes that states will relinquish sovereignty and freedom of action or inaction to increasing interdependence and the premise of the indivisibility of peace.
The security that can be derived from this is part of the foundation of the neoliberal institutionalist argument. Communitarianism Suggested text for this entry welcome. Complex Interdependence Theory The term 'complex interdependence' was developed by Robert Keohane and Joseph Nye and refers to the various, complex transnational connections interdependencies between states and societies.
Interdependence theorists noted that such relations, particularly economic ones, were increasing; while the use of military force and power balancing were decreasing but remained important.
Reflecting on these developments, they argued that the decline of military force as a policy tool and the increase in economic and other forms of interdependence should increase the probability of cooperation among states.
The complex interdependence framework can be seen as an attempt to synthesise elements of realist and liberal thought. Finally, anticipating problems of cheating and relative gains raised by realists, interdependence theorists introduced the concept of 'regimes' to mitigate anarchy and facilitate cooperation.
Here, we can see an obvious connection to neo-liberal institutionalism. World Politics in Transition. Complexity Theory Complexity theory offers a rich array of concepts that can help us ask deeper questions.
Taken together, these concepts argue for viewing world politics increasingly as a group of tightly bound actors evolving together, characterized more by context than their innate nature, vulnerable to surprise from new groups whose members decide independently to organize themselves in new ways and for new purposes.
These concepts argue further for assuming that substantive consequences can arise, sometimes rapidly, from initially minor conditions and that organizations and countries will have a dangerous tendency to push themselves to limits beyond which catastrophe is almost unavoidable.
The resultant picture of the 21st century world of high technology, instant communication, tight international connectivity at all levels of society, and universal education is one of a political world not only constantly evolving but evolving more rapidly, where actors can change course abruptly, policies that worked can suddenly fail, and success will go to the nimble.
Mills, Analyzing the Future Web site.It is hard for a teacher or student of the English Civil War in not to feel that Marxism is under siege with supplies running out. The big guns of the academic establishment thunder ceaselessly against it, and even articles in supposedly left-wing journals proclaim that Marxism is dead.
Rethinking Historical Distance: From Doctrine to Heuristic. MARK SALBER PHILLIPS. History and Theory, Theme Issue 50 (December ), In common usage, historical distance refers to a position of detached observation made possible by the passage of time.
The ideas of Marx have never been more relevant than they are today. This is reflected in the thirst for Marxist theory at the present time.
In this article, Alan Woods deals with the main ideas of Karl Marx and their relevance to the crisis we're passing through today. Marx’s Civil War writings wrestle with many of the issues that plague today’s left.
African-American Union soldiers during the US Civil War. Library of Congress Marx’s writings on the American Civil War have long languished in obscurity. Despite the fact that they address race, class, and.
Fascism (/ ˈ f æ ʃ ɪ z əm /) is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and strong regimentation of society and of the economy, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
The first fascist movements emerged in Italy during World War I before it spread to other European countries. The war of attrition on the ground, like the bombing in the North, was designed less to destroy the enemy’s ability to wage war than to demonstrate to the enemy that he could not win and to bring him to the bargaining table.