A radio message from the Andromeda galaxy, over a million light years away, is picked up by a radio telescope, and turns out to be the blueprints and assembly instructions for an alien supercomputer. When the supercomputer is turned on, it builds a beautiful woman, whose mind is partly alien. There was a sequel, about a second Andromeda computer being assembled in South America, with pretty much the same production team, but with Susan Hampshire replacing Julie Christie. The sequel series' title was "The Andromeda Breakthrough.
References and Further Reading 1. Brief History before the 19th Century The debate begins with modern science. More generally, 17th century protagonists of the new sciences advocated a metaphysical picture: This metaphysical picture quickly led to empiricist scruples, voiced by Berkeley and Hume.
If all knowledge must be traced to the senses, how can we have reason to believe scientific theories, given that reality lies behind the appearances hidden by a veil of perception?
Indeed, if all content must be traced to the senses, how can we even understand such theories? A central problem for empiricists becomes that of drawing a line between objectionable metaphysics and legitimate science portions of which seem to be as removed from experience as metaphysics seems to be.
Kant attempted to circumvent this problem and find a philosophical home for Newtonian physics. He rejected both a veil of perception and the possibility of our representing the noumenal reality lying behind it.
The possibility of making judgments depends on our having structured what is given: What is real and judgable is just what is empirically real—what fits our system of representation in the right way—and there is no need for, and no possibility of, problematic inferences to noumenal goings-on.
In pursuing this project Kant committed himself to several claims about space and time—in particular that space must be Euclidean, which he regarded as both a priori because a condition of the possibility of our experience of objects and synthetic because not derivable from analytical equivalences —which became increasingly problematic as 19th century science and mathematics advanced.
The 19th Century Debate Many features of the contemporary debates were fashioned in 19th century disputes about the nature of space and the reality of forces and atoms. These geometries raise the possibility that physical space could be non-Euclidean. Empiricists think we can determine whether physical space is Euclidean through experiments.
For example, Gauss allegedly attempted to measure the angles of a triangle between three mountaintops to test whether physical space is Euclidean.
Realists think physical space has some determinate geometrical character even if we cannot discover what character it has.
Kantians think that physical space must be Euclidean because only Euclidean geometry is consistent with the form of our sensibility. This would support the hypothesis that physical space is Euclidean only under certain presuppositions about the coordination of optics with geometry: Arguing that there is no fact of the matter about the geometry of physical space.
Measurements of lines and angles typically rely on the hypothesis that light travels shortest paths. But this lacks physical meaning unless we decide whether shortest paths are Euclidean or non-Euclidean. These conventions cannot be experimentally refuted or confirmed since experiments only have physical meaning relative to them.
Which group of conventions we adopt depends on pragmatic factors: The Reality of Forces and Atoms Ever since Newton, a certain realist ideal of science was influential: By the s many physicists came to doubt the attainability of this ideal since classical mechanics lacked the tools to describe a host of terrestrial phenomena: The concepts of atom and force became questionable.
The kinetic theory of gases lent support to atomism, yet no consistent models could be found for example, spectroscopic phenomena required atoms to vibrate while specific heat phenomena required them to be rigid. Moreover, intermolecular forces allowing for internal vibration and deformation could not be easily conceptualized as Newtonian central forces.
Many thought that physics had become a disorganized patchwork of poorly understood theories, lacking coherence, unity, empirical determinacy, and adequate foundations. As a result, physicists became increasingly preoccupied with foundational efforts to put their house in order.The Science of Stars The Science of Stars Rochell Clark August 13, SCI Robert Austin Stars are the majority and most widely acknowledged astronomical components that symbolize the most essential development of blocks of galaxies.
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