The Chicago Manual of Style has been published since and offers writing and citation guidance for publishing and documentation preparation.
Although you should use these citation formats in this and other biology courses, specific formats vary considerably for individual journals. If you are trying to publish a paper in a specific journal, you will be required to follow the format of that journal.
That system will not be presented here, but you should expect to encounter it in your reading of the literature. A complete listing of citation formats for published materials may be found in Huth et al Citing References in the Body Intro and Discussion of the Paper Throughout the body of your paper primarily the Intro and Discussionwhenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information.
The simplest way to do this is to parenthetically give the author's last name and the year of publication, e. Provide a reference to the work as soon as possible after giving the information. Top of Page Standard Text Citation Formats There are exceptions among the various journals, but generally, in biological journals, the most frequent types of citations are shown in the following examples in red: Click and Clack demonstrated that mice treated with synthetic estrogen analogs react similarly.
The reduction in phase three courtship behavior may also be linked to nutritional status Anon. Typically, only the last name of the author s and the year of publication are given,e. Your Literature Cited section will contain the complete reference, and the reader can look it up there. Notice that the reference to the book has a page number Gumwad This is to facilitate a reader's finding the reference in a long publication such as a book not done for journal articles.
The paper by Bugjuice is short, and if readers want to find the referenced information, they would not have as much trouble. For two author papers, give both authors' last names e. Articles with more than two authors are cited by the first authors last name followed "and others" or "et al. When a book, paper, or article has no identifiable author, cite it as Anon.
If you want reference a paper found in another article, do so as follows: Driblickin Oobleck A string of citations should be separated by semicolons, e. Finally, you should note the placement of the period AFTER the parenthetical citation - the citation, too, is part of a sentence,e.
Theses and dissertatons should be cited as follows: A study of hormonal regulation of body temperature and consequences for reproductive success in the common house mouse Mus musculus in Nome, Alaska.
Masters Thesis, University of Alaska, Anchorage. WWW citation should be done with caution since so much is posted without peer review.
When necessary, report the complete URL in the text including the site author's name: Ohio State University Library has a good webpage for citing web sources:The title of a book should be capitalized when written in a sentence. Additional formatting, such as quotation marks or underlining, depends on the overall style expectations for the paper.
How to Reference Books and Articles in Text Before computers, we used typewriters to underline book titles, and we placed quotation marks around article titles. However, many current style manuals recommend italicizing book titles and magazine names (impossible to do on a typewriter) and using quotation marks around articles.
Book titles should always be italicized, unless you are handwriting the essay.
In that case you would simply underline the title. One easy way to remember which title should be italicized or put into quotation marks is to think about whether the text is one piece of a larger project or if it IS the larger project.
The correct way to write answers in MLA format is like this: When in a body paragraph such as this you would write a book title should be Italicized.
Like this: Harry Potter and the Philosophers Stone.
Book titles should always be italicized, unless you are handwriting the essay. In that case you would simply underline the title.
One easy way to remember which title should be italicized or put. After a period, type the title of the book, italicized.
State the city of publication followed by a colon. After that, place the name of the publisher, a comma and the year of publication.