December Politics are among the most ancient, enduring, and consequential sources of conflict, as they determine how power will be distributed among people, including over life and death, wealth and poverty, independence and obedience. Conflicts concerning these issues have shaped the ways we have interacted as a species over the course of centuries. At their core, as Hannah Arendt wrote, is the conflict that, "from the beginning of our history has determined the very existence of politics:
Essay on leadership research Essay on leadership research Leadership is one of the most widely researched topics of the 20th century while being one of the most misunderstood as well Nazari, Leadership involves the ability to inspire and influence the thinking, attitudes, and behavior of other people.
Diverse theories of leadership can be found in the organizational literature. These theories can be distinguished by several historically distinct approaches that focus on either traits, behaviors, situational contingencies, or transformational leadership Gibson, An organization is an interacting network, not a vertical hierarchy.
Effective leaders work throughout; they do not sit on top Mintzberg, While the phenomenon of leadership is widely considered to be universal across cultures, the way in which it is operationalized is usually viewed as culturally specific Dorfman, Definition of leadership Leadership is defined as the process of having dominance on group activities in order to realize the objectives Nazari, Leadership is a sacred trust earned from the respect of others Mintzberg, Many definitions of leadership have been proposed in the literature, but despite differences among them there seems to be some kind of agreement among authors that leadership is a process, involves influence, occurs within a group context, and involves goal attainment Carter, General information on leadership To execute the leadership task, managers try to have influence the people under their supervision and motivate and direct them to achieve the organizational objectives.
Creating motivation in staff in such a way that they do their activity and work in the organization with enthusiasm and reach the goals is very important.
This problem with transnational managers who have to create motivation in the individuals with different cultures is more significant.
Five socio-cultural dimensions, identified by Hofstede The first dimension is called power distance PDIand is defined as the degree of inequality among the people which a group of people considers as normal.
The second dimension, individualism INDis the degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups. Uncertainty avoidance UAI is the degree to which people in a country prefer structured over unstructured situations.
Finally, the fifth dimension, long-term orientation LTOwas intended to account for specific traits of many Asian cultures, which were not covered by the first four dimensions Hofstede Since the late s, much of the leadership research has concentrated on characteristics and specific effects of charismatic and transformational leadership Bass ; Kanungo ; Sashkin ; Tichy and Devanna In this study, we used a version of transformational leadership theory formulated by Bass and his colleagues Bass; Avolio et al.
According to Basstransformational leaders motivate their followers by inspiring them, offering challenges, and encouraging individual development.
Transformational leadership stresses achievement of higher collective purpose, of common mission and vision.
The second leadership style is transactional leadership. Transactional leaders stress specific benefits that their subordinates would receive by accomplishing agreed-upon tasks. A transactional leadership style involves negotiations between leaders and their subordinates, and exchange relationships between them.
Research shows that different behaviors are involved in transformational and transactional leadership. Transactional leadership includes contingent reward CR behavior and management by exception ME.
A series of studies reviewed by Bass support the distinction between transformational and transactional leadership. There is also considerable evidence that transformational leadership is effective, and is positively related to subordinate satisfaction, motivation, and performance Lowe et al.
Transactional and transformational leadership styles are contrasted with laissez-faire leadership. Laissez-faire leaders abdicate their responsibility and avoid making decisions Bass b.
Subordinates working under this kind of supervisor basically are left to their own devices to execute their job responsibilities. Although laissez-faire leadership is observed infrequently in the US businesses Bass and Avoliomanagers still exhibit it in varying amounts Bass a.
Prior research has found that laissez-faire leadership has an adverse effect on work-related outcomes of employees Bass a; Yammarino and Bass Most of the extant leadership research is based on data collected in the North American context Northhouse Regarding leadership styles of German managers, Kuchinkein his comparison of US and German telecommunications employees, has found that the US respondents ranked higher than Germans on two dimensions of transformational leadership charisma and inspirational motivation.
The majority of studies dealing with leadership styles of managers in Russia are based either on consulting or teaching experience of the authors, or on a limited number of case studies e.
Berger ; Clarke Attempts were made at developing lists of leadership traits or management styles of business people in the transitional economies.
For example, a framework developed by Puffer suggests that contemporary Russian managers tend to share power, are inclined to delegate decision making largely to avoid the responsibility for unforeseen consequencesprefer to concentrate on strategic decision making, are tenacious and energetic, and have strong collectivist attitudes.This book was created as an alternative to the or page comprehensive textbook in organizational behavior (OB).
It attempts to provide balanced coverage of all the key elements comprising the discipline of OB, in a style that readers will find both informative and interesting.
Cultures and politics effect on social change Research Paper Introduction Russia, historically known as the Soviet Union is one of economic and political super powers in eastern world.
Many world nations consider the Russian culture as synonymous with the cold war, government ruling with an iron hand, and the Red Scare (Fulga, ).
This view [ ]. Organizational politics affect the decisions and behavior in an organization through the use of power. Political behavior is the attempt to influence employees outside of their defined roles in an organization.
General Bases of Power are: Dependency, Non-substitutable, Concentrated (short supply), Formal Power, Derives from access to those who can rely on all 4 WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON POWER AND POLITICS ORGANIZATION THEORY SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU.
Essay Question: Explain what is meant by a manager's power base, the ways a manager develops it, and how a manager can effectively use it to achieve organizational and personal goals. Optional: Enter your name and your instructor's E-mail address to have your results E-mailed to him or her.
Below is an essay on "5 Bases of Power" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.
, 11 5 Bases of Power Power is the possession of control, authority or influence over others.