He taught that a ruler must set an example to inspire people to strive for a moral life. Years after he died, students assembled his teachings into a book, the Analects, and a new school of thought developed—Confucianism. This philosophy deeply influenced China throughout most of its history. A series of dynasties, or ruling families, governed China for centuries.
Upon first acquaintance with this system it seems no more than a rationalization by political administrators for their having total political control of their societies.
And perhaps this was the way Legalism arose, but over time the Legalist administrators and advisors formulated enough tenets and principles that their ideas had at least the semblance of a philosophy of political and social administration.
Legalist ministers were instrumental in the strengthening of Qin to enable it to conquer the other kingdoms.
Before the conquest of the other kingdoms by Qin and the creation of the Chinese Empire, what is now China consisted of a multitude of principalities wracked by chronic warfare.
Not only did the seven kingdoms go to war with each other, there were feudal subdivisions within the kingdoms which fought with each other and with the rulers of their kingdom. Warfare in this Warring States period was a definite calamity for the people but the social and economic situations were not complete misery.
The Chinese civilization of the time was a thousand to two thousand years ahead of Europe and the Middle East in terms of technology.
At a time when no one in Europe or the Middle East could melt even one ounce of iron, in China people were casting multi-ton objects, a feat that Britain was not able to achieve until the eighteenth century.
The fractured politics of ancient China appeared to be an unnecessary burden upon an otherwise brilliant civilization.
There had been attempts to unite the feuding states before Qin Shihuang conquered the other kingdoms. But such conquests had little effect on the fragmentation because the conquering monarch had to divide up control of the conquered states among his subordinates and they, in turn, divided up control of their territory among their subordinates.
This hierarchical subdivision was the essence of feudalism. After a few generations the feudal subunits emerged as autonomous states ready and willing to fight with their overlords or the lords of other feudal subunits. Thus the conquests did not lead to consolidation.
What was needed by the conquering states was not just a victory in the field but a system of governance that would retain control. There were a number of philosophies of political administration that were vying for adoption by the monarchs of the kingdoms.
Confucianismwhich had arisen about BCE, stressed the importance of filial allegiance and ritual and probably was the dominant philosophy of the time.
The Confucians asserted that humans were basically good and that evil came from the failures of the systems under which they lived. Mohism was a philosophy propounded by Mo Ti usually referred by the name of his book Mo Tzua teacher who initially was a Confucian.
He proposed that the problems of humans could be solved by universal love. If everyone loved everyone then disputes could not exist, at least according to the Mohists. While that proposition might be acceptable the panacea lacked a practical path for its implementation.
Some of the royal administrators averred that from their experience humans were fundamentally evil, and given the opportunity would perpetrate the most appalling acts of selfishness, including, most importantly, disloyalty to their rulers. The administrators who became known as Legalists asserted that humans could be dissuaded from acting upon their selfish impulses only if they faced a set of rigidly enforced punishments for evil, selfish behavior.
This meant that the basis for a just, prosperous and contented society is a set of well-publicized laws and the punishments that are to be meted out for their violation. Thus the name that was adopted for this philosophy of political administration is Legalism.
But Legalism went beyond the proposition of the need for a comprehensive set of laws. The three elements of proper government according to Legalist theory were: Power and position Shu:Leadership and Management in China: Philosophies, Theories, and Practices [Chao-Chuan Chen, Yueh-Ting Lee] on srmvision.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
With the rise of China in the global economy, it has never been more important for business leaders to understand Chinese leadership philosophies and practices.
This is the first . These are lesson plans, activity and project ideas, and interactive games and quizzes for teachers and kids to use in your study of Ancient China.
Legalism, school of Chinese philosophy that attained prominence during the turbulent Warring States era (– bce) and, through the influence of the philosophers Shang Yang, Li Si, and Hanfeizi, formed the ideological basis of China’s first imperial dynasty, the Qin (– bce).
Solzhenitsyn's warning of Western decline is as relevant today as it was twenty-five years ago. I am sincerely happy to be here with you on the occasion of the th commencement of this old and illustrious university.
My congratulations and best wishes to all of today's graduates. Introduction. The study of preth century gender issues in China began in the s with Margery Wolf’s groundbreaking anthropological analysis of . Confucianism.
Confucianism means "The School of the Scholars"; or, less accurately, "The Religion of Confucius") is an East Asian ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the early Chinese sage Confucius.