For machine learning to be useful and trustworthy in health care, Ideker said, practitioners need to open up the black box and understand how a system arrives at a decision. Machine learning systems are built on layers of artificial neurons, known as a neural network. The layers are tied together by seemingly random connections between neurons.
This article is over 1 year old Scientists identify 40 genes that shed new light on biology of intelligence Photograph: The research on 60, adults and 20, children uncovered 40 new genes that play a role in intelligence, a haul that brings the number of genes known to have a bearing on IQ to Forming part of the blueprint for the brain, the genes provide instructions for the building of healthy neurons, the paths they take through the 3lb lump of tissue, and the construction of hundreds of trillions of synapses that connect them.
The vast majority have yet to be found, and those that have do not have a huge impact. Working with an international team of scientists, Posthuma looked for genetic markers linked to intelligence in 13 different groups of people of European descent. Amid the 52 genes they found, 40 were new ones that predominantly switched on in the brain.
The same genes were also associated with better educational attainment, a larger head circumference at birth, living longer, and autism.
While scientists have an idea what many of the newfound genes do, Posthuma said the next step was to block their function in mice to see what impact each gene has on brain function. The same could be done with human neurons made from skin cells in the lab, she said.
In time, if researchers can build up a detailed picture of the genetics of intelligence, it could help them understand what goes wrong in conditions that lead to mental impairment.
But research on the genetics of IQ has always raised serious questions about how the information might be used.
Could human embryos be chosen according to their future brain power? Could scientists make drugs to enhance human intelligence? If so, would only the richest have access to such powerful technology?
IVF embryos are already screened for genetic faults. With larger studies, scientists expect to find more genes that contribute to intelligence. Eventually, the work may reach a point where the genomes of IVF embryos could be used to rank them according to their intellectual potential, even if the difference is so small as to be insignificant.
The prospect of IQ-boosting drugs should not be dismissed either, Ritchie added. The world is home to an ageing population and cognitive function declines in old age, leaving the aged more prone to error and accidents, more vulnerable to scammers.Part One: A Brief History of Emotional Intelligence Emotional Intelligence: Roots in IQ Measurement The idea of measuring intelligence took hold in the early part of the twentieth century and resulted in the.
Scientists identify 40 genes that shed new light on biology of intelligence “Genes do not determine everything for intelligence,” said Posthuma. “There are so many other factors that.
Genes responsible for diversity of human skin colors identified Date: October 12, Source: University of Pennsylvania Summary: A study of diverse African groups by geneticists has identified.
Children inherit their intelligence from their mother not their father, say scientists. Genes for cleverness are carried on the X chromosome and may be deactivated if they come from the father. More Evidence That Intelligence Is Largely Inherited: Researchers Find That Genes Determine Brain's Processing Speed Date: March 18, Source.
"Heritability" is defined as the proportion of variance in a trait which is attributable to genetic variation within a defined population in a specific environment. Heritability takes a value ranging from 0 to 1; a heritability of 1 indicates that all variation in the trait in question is genetic in origin and a heritability of 0 indicates that none of the variation is genetic.